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Packet switching takes large messages (or chunks of computer data) and breaks them into smaller, manageable pieces (known as packets) that can travel independently over any available circuit to the target destination, where the pieces are reassembled.Thus, unlike traditional voice communications, packet switching does not require a single dedicated circuit between each pair of users.However, time-sharing systems were then still too large, unwieldy, and costly to be mobile or even to exist outside a climate-controlled computing environment.A strong motivation thus existed to connect the packet radio network to ARPANET in order to allow mobile users with simple terminals to access the time-sharing systems for which they had authorization.In order for the concept to work, a new protocol had to be designed and developed; indeed, a system architecture was also required.In 1974 in California, and this author, then at DARPA, collaborated on a paper that first described such a protocol and system architecture—namely, the transmission control protocol (TCP), which enabled different types of machines on networks all over the world to route and assemble data packets. By the early 1980s the “open architecture” of the TCP/IP approach was adopted and endorsed by many other researchers and eventually by technologists and businessmen around the world. While DARPA had played a seminal role in creating a small-scale version of the Internet among its researchers, NSF worked with DARPA to expand access to the entire scientific and academic community and to make TCP/IP the standard in all federally supported research networks.By the early 1960s computer manufacturers had begun to use semiconductor technology in commercial products, and both conventional batch-processing and systems were in place in many large, technologically advanced companies.
It supports human communication via (e-mail), “chat rooms,” newsgroups, and audio and video transmission and allows people to work collaboratively at many different locations.Commercial packet networks were introduced in the 1970s, but these were designed principally to provide efficient access to remote computers by dedicated terminals.