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A visitor walking from the street towards the main building would have seen the sacred spaces of the two yards open before his eyes one after the other, until, standing in the inner yard, he would have seen not only the portico, but also the interior of the central hall, which—not enclosed by a wall—opened directly onto the portico of the main building.
At the far end of the hall there was a door leading to the cella, and on each side of it two niches with clay statues of divinities.
After holding him prisoner for a few months, the Arabs executed him. These excavations uncovered remnants of pre-Islamic structures of sun-dried brick in good condition, and located a necropolis with nauses and ossuaries on the outskirts of the ancient town. Yakubovskiĭ, who noted its great importance and put forth a proposal for its systematic and methodical excavation, since in his view Panjikant could yield valuable data about the character of Central Asian cities before the Arab conquest. Bol’shakov, who later became renowned specialists as well.
After Dēwāštič, Panjikant had no more native rulers. Although the site of ancient Panjikant has been known since the 1870s, excavations there started only in the 1930s, when the name of Dēwāštič and his main title “lord of Panč” were identified in documents found at Mt. Yakubovskiĭ put together a strong team of specialists, including Mikhail M. Along with these established scholars the expedition included the young archaeologists and Orientalists Boris Ya. The Panjikant division of the Sogdian-Tajik (later Tajik) expedition, led by Yakubovskiĭ, began excavating Panjikant in 1947, and since then the excavations have been conducted without a season’s interruption.
However this fact could reflect some kind of a possible Māymurḡ’s domination over Panč in the period before the 7th century C. In 102/721-2 Dēwāštič, who was still a ruler of Panjikant, claimed the title “king of Sogdia and lord of Samarqand.” The Arabs initially recognized his new title, but soon forced him to flee to Pārḡar, and later to the castle on Mt.
Mug, where he was finally captured (Grenet, de la Vaissière 2003). Cheĭlytko conducted limited excavations in Panjikant, without publishing the results.
At the foot of the fort and to the north of it lies the lower fortification, watered by the abundant Qaynar spring. There were no buildings between the wall and the fort.
It shows traces of habitation from the 2nd century B. On a hilly site to the east of the fort once rose the richly decorated palace of Dēwāštič, which apparently burned down in 103/722.
Yoshida thinks that Panjikant was a part of Māymurḡ because the Chinese named another Panjikant—probably a colony of its namesake in Semireč’e—as Mi-guo (State Māymurḡ). de la Vaissière compares Pat-sik-tek (the Tang pronunciation of modern Bo-xi-te) with Pančikant (de la Vaissière 2002, p.125), but many Sogdian toponyms were transliterated much better with the Chinese characters among which there were rather good equivalents of the last syllable –kanṯ. Further to the east, starting from the valley of the river Kshtut, lay Pārḡar, which—at least in the 9th-10th centuries and perhaps even earlier—was part of Osrušana, although in the early 8th century it was within the domain of prince Dēwāštič (708? Panjikant of the 5th-8th centuries is known primarily from extensive archaeological excavations, while the scant information about the relatively short period of Dēwāštič’s rule is derived mostly from documents found at Mt. The only reference to Dēwāštič and his Panjikant supporters in Ṭabarī pertains to the year 103/722.New fortifications were built to the south and east, so part of the old walls were enclosed within the perimeter of the new ones, dividing the city into inner and outer quarters.The walls of the inner city were repaired and reinforced in the 6th and the 7th centuries.Straight fortified walls defended the settlement: the northern wall running along the rim of the terrace, and the eastern wall perpendicular to it.
The southern wall ran straight only where the terrain permitted, and the western wall followed the irregular edge of the hill, departing from the overall regular design.
Most of the ceramics are from the bustling regional trade during the Ming Gap period. For those interested and those who are collecting, this is a keeper- you'll learn about the time periods, the shapes, the motifs, the glaze differences... It's a scholarly work, so don't expect a Dorling Kindersley treatment.